what is exception in java with example

what is exception in java with example

In Java, an exception is an event that disrupts the normal flow of a program’s instructions during execution. Exceptions are used to handle errors and other exceptional events that can occur in a Java program. When an exceptional event occurs, an object representing that exception is created and thrown in the method that caused the error.

Here’s a basic overview of exceptions in Java:

1. Throwing an Exception: You can throw an exception explicitly using the throw keyword. For example, you might throw an exception if a certain condition is not met:

Exception Example

if(someConditionIsNotMet) {
    throw new Exception("This is an error message");

2. Catching an Exception: Exceptions are caught using try, catch, and finally blocks. Code that might throw an exception is enclosed within a try block, and if an exception occurs, it’s caught and handled in a corresponding catch block:

Catching an Exception using try catch block

try {
    // code that might cause an exception
} catch (Exception e) {
    // handle the exception
    System.out.println("An exception occurred: " + e.getMessage());
} finally {
    // code that will be executed regardless of whether an exception occurred or not

In the catch block, you can handle the exception, log the error, or take any necessary corrective action.

Types of Exceptions

Types of Exceptions: There are two main types of exceptions in Java: checked exceptions and unchecked exceptions.

  1. Checked Exceptions (Compile time Exceptions)
  2. Unchecked Exceptions (Runtime Exceptions)

1. Checked Exceptions: These are exceptions that are checked at compile-time. If a method is capable of causing a checked exception, it must declare that it throws the exception using the throws keyword.

Checked Exception example

public void readFile() throws IOException {
    // code that might throw IOException

2. Unchecked Exceptions (Runtime Exceptions): These are exceptions that are not checked at compile-time. They extend the RuntimeException class. Examples include NullPointerException, ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException, etc. Methods are not required to declare that they may throw unchecked exceptions.

Unchecked Exception example

public void divide(int a, int b) {
    if (b == 0) {
        throw new ArithmeticException("Division by zero is not allowed");
    int result = a / b;
    System.out.println("Result: " + result);

Unchecked exceptions are often caused by bugs in the code (such as trying to access an array element that doesn’t exist), while checked exceptions are usually related to external factors, like file I/O operations or network connections.

Custom Exceptions

Custom Exceptions: You can also create your own custom exceptions by extending the Exception class or any of its subclasses. Custom exceptions allow you to define specific exception types for your application.

Custom Exception example

class CustomException extends Exception {
    CustomException(String message) {

And then you can throw and catch your custom exception like any other exception.

Exceptions in Java provide a way to handle errors and exceptional situations gracefully, allowing the program to recover or terminate without crashing. They are an essential part of Java’s error handling mechanism, ensuring robust and reliable applications.

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